Obesity: Causes, Types, Symptoms & Prevention

Written by Dr. Rachna Kucheria (MBBS MAMC New Delhi, MD AIIMS New Delhi, MD (Family Medicine) USC California), one of the best general physicians in Delhi NCR.

In a world where convenience often takes precedence over health, obesity has become a global epidemic affecting millions of individuals across all age groups. This pressing issue not only poses significant health risks but also places a considerable burden on healthcare systems worldwide. In this blog post, we will delve into the various aspects of obesity, exploring its causes, types, prevention strategies, and providing a comprehensive definition.


Defining Obesity

Obesity is a complex and multifaceted medical condition characterized by the excessive accumulation of body fat. It is typically assessed using the Body Mass Index (BMI), a measure that takes into account a person’s weight in relation to their height. According to the World Health Organization (WHO), an individual with a BMI of 30 or higher is classified as obese.

Causes of Obesity:

Unhealthy Diet:

A poor diet, characterized by the excessive consumption of processed foods, high in sugars, saturated fats, and calories, plays a significant role in the development of obesity. Over reliance on fast food, sugary beverages, and snacks contributes to an imbalance between energy intake and expenditure.

Lack of Physical Activity:

Sedentary lifestyles, marked by a lack of regular physical activity, contribute to weight gain and obesity. Modern conveniences, such as desk jobs, prolonged screen time, and reduced physical activity, result in fewer calories burned, leading to an imbalance in the energy equation.


Genetic factors can influence an individual’s susceptibility to obesity. Some people may have a genetic predisposition that affects their metabolism, fat distribution, and responsiveness to hunger and satiety cues. While genetics play a role, lifestyle choices still significantly impact weight.

Environmental Factors:

The obesogenic environment, characterized by easy access to unhealthy foods, limited opportunities for physical activity, and sedentary work environments, contributes to the obesity epidemic. Urbanization, transportation trends, and built environments can influence lifestyle choices that contribute to weight gain.

Medical Conditions:

Certain medical conditions can lead to weight gain and obesity. Conditions such as hypothyroidism, polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), and hormonal imbalances can affect metabolism and contribute to an increased risk of obesity.

Psychological Factors:

Emotional factors, such as stress, depression, and anxiety, can lead to overeating and unhealthy eating habits. Food may be used as a coping mechanism, leading to the consumption of excess calories and the development of obesity.

Social and Economic Factors:

Socioeconomic factors, including income, education, and access to healthcare, can influence obesity rates. Limited resources and opportunities for healthier choices may contribute to the prevalence of unhealthy eating habits and sedentary behaviors in certain populations.

It’s important to note that obesity often results from a combination of these factors, and individuals may be affected differently based on their unique circumstances. Addressing and preventing obesity requires a comprehensive approach that includes lifestyle changes, education, and community-level interventions.


While obesity is often identified through Body Mass Index (BMI) measurements, it also manifests through various physical and psychological symptoms. It’s important to note that the severity and combination of symptoms can vary among individuals.

Here are seven common symptoms associated with obesity:

Excessive Weight Gain:

The most obvious symptom of obesity is a significant increase in body weight, often leading to a BMI of 30 or higher. This excess weight is typically due to an accumulation of body fat.

Breathlessness and Fatigue:

Carrying excess weight puts additional strain on the respiratory system and muscles. Obese individuals may experience breathlessness even with minimal physical exertion, leading to fatigue and a reduced capacity for exercise.

Joint Pain:

Obesity can contribute to joint stress, particularly in weight-bearing areas such as the knees and hips. This can result in chronic pain, inflammation, and conditions like osteoarthritis.

Sleep Disorders:

Obstructive sleep apnea is a common sleep disorder associated with obesity. The excess weight can lead to the narrowing of airways, causing disruptions in breathing during sleep and resulting in poor sleep quality.

Skin Issues:

Obesity may lead to various skin problems, including chafing, stretch marks, and skin infections. Skin folds in areas with excess fat can create environments conducive to bacterial or fungal growth.

Insulin Resistance and Type 2 Diabetes:

Obesity is a significant risk factor for developing insulin resistance, a condition where the body’s cells become less responsive to insulin. This can lead to elevated blood sugar levels and, eventually, the development of type 2 diabetes.

Psychological Distress:

Obesity can contribute to psychological symptoms such as low self-esteem, depression, and anxiety. Social stigmatization and societal pressures related to body image can further exacerbate mental health challenges in individuals with obesity.

It’s crucial to recognize that these symptoms may not be exclusive to obesity and can be influenced by various factors. Additionally, individuals may experience a combination of these symptoms or none at all. Seeking professional medical advice is essential for accurate diagnosis, personalized treatment plans, and addressing the potential underlying causes of obesity-related symptoms.

Types of obesity:

Obesity is not a one-size-fits-all condition, and it manifests in various ways. Understanding the different types of obesity can help tailor interventions and treatments more effectively. Here are some common types of obesity:

Android or Central Obesity:

This type of obesity is characterized by the accumulation of excess fat around the abdominal area, giving individuals an “apple-shaped” appearance. It is often associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular diseases, type 2 diabetes, and metabolic syndrome.

Gynoid or Peripheral Obesity:

In contrast to central obesity, gynoid obesity involves the accumulation of fat in the lower part of the body, particularly around the hips and thighs. Individuals with this type of obesity may have a “pear-shaped” body and are at a relatively lower risk of cardiovascular diseases compared to those with central obesity.

Visceral Fat Obesity:

Visceral fat is the fat stored around internal organs like the liver, pancreas, and intestines. Excessive visceral fat, often associated with central obesity, is linked to a higher risk of insulin resistance, inflammation, and cardiovascular diseases.


Lipodystrophy is a rare condition characterized by abnormal fat distribution throughout the body. Some areas experience excessive fat accumulation, while others, typically the limbs and face, have little to no fat. This imbalance can lead to metabolic abnormalities and insulin resistance.

Metabolically Healthy Obesity (MHO):

Some individuals classified as obese based on BMI may exhibit fewer metabolic abnormalities, such as normal blood pressure, cholesterol levels, and insulin sensitivity. However, the long-term health implications of metabolically healthy obesity are still a subject of ongoing research.

Posterior or Gluteofemoral Obesity:

This type involves the accumulation of excess fat in the buttocks and thighs. While individuals with this type of obesity may have a lower risk of cardiovascular diseases, it can still contribute to overall body weight and affect musculoskeletal health.

Abdominal Subcutaneous Obesity:

Subcutaneous fat is the fat stored just beneath the skin. When it accumulates in the abdominal region, it contributes to abdominal obesity. While not as metabolically harmful as visceral fat, excessive subcutaneous fat can still impact overall health.

Inflammatory Obesity:

Inflammation is often associated with obesity. Adipose tissue, or fat cells, can release inflammatory substances that contribute to chronic inflammation in the body, increasing the risk of various diseases.

Understanding these different types of obesity allows for a more nuanced approach to prevention and management. Tailoring interventions based on the specific characteristics of an individual’s obesity can lead to more effective outcomes in terms of both weight loss and overall health improvement.


Preventing obesity involves adopting a holistic approach that encompasses lifestyle changes, dietary modifications, and increased physical activity. Here are key strategies to prevent obesity:

Healthy Eating Habits:

  • Emphasize a balanced diet rich in fruits, vegetables, whole grains, and lean proteins.
  • Limit the consumption of processed foods, sugary beverages, and high-calorie snacks.
  • Control portion sizes to avoid overeating

Regular Physical Activity:

  • Engage in at least 150 minutes of moderate-intensity aerobic exercise or 75 minutes of vigorous-intensity exercise per week.
  • Incorporate strength training exercises at least twice a week to build muscle and boost metabolism.
  • Find enjoyable physical activities to make exercise a sustainable part of your routine.

Limit Sedentary Behaviors:

  • Reduce screen time, including television, computer, and mobile device usage.
  • Take breaks from prolonged sitting by standing, stretching, or walking at regular intervals.
  • Encourage active hobbies and recreational activities.

Behavioral Changes:

  • Practice mindful eating by paying attention to hunger and fullness cues.
  • Identify and address emotional triggers for overeating or unhealthy eating habits.
  • Keep a food diary to track eating patterns and identify areas for improvement.

Promote Healthy Environments:

  • Advocate for healthier food options in schools, workplaces, and communities.
  • Support policies that encourage physical activity, such as creating safe spaces for walking and biking.

Educational Initiatives:

  • Raise awareness about the health risks of obesity and the importance of maintaining a healthy weight.
  • Provide resources and information on nutrition, exercise, and overall well-being.

Regular Health Check-ups:

  • Schedule regular check-ups with healthcare providers to monitor weight, assess overall health, and address any potential issues early on.
  • Seek professional guidance for personalized nutrition and fitness plans.

Family and Community Involvement:

  • Foster a supportive environment within families, encouraging healthy habits for all members.
  • Engage in community programs that promote physical activity and access to nutritious foods.

Limit Sugary Beverages:

  • Choose water, herbal teas, or other low-calorie beverages instead of sugary drinks.
  • Be mindful of hidden sugars in processed foods and opt for healthier alternatives

Set Realistic Goals:

  • Establish achievable short-term and long-term goals for weight management and overall health.
  • Celebrate small victories and progress to maintain motivation.

By implementing these preventive measures, individuals can significantly reduce their risk of obesity and its associated health complications. It’s essential to recognize that prevention is a continuous and personalized effort, requiring commitment and consistency over time.


As the prevalence of obesity continues to rise, understanding its causes, types, and preventive measures becomes crucial for individuals and communities alike. By fostering a culture of healthy living, promoting awareness, and adopting proactive lifestyle changes, we can collectively work towards combating the obesity epidemic and fostering a healthier, happier society.

If you have any concerns or queries about OBESITY consult a highly experienced general physician on DocGenie. All our GPs are available for online video sessions. With DocGenie you can get quality medical help from the comfort of your home, in a cost effective way.

About the Author

Dr. Rachna Kucheria is one of the best general physicians in Delhi NCR. She is a US-trained Physician (Family Practice) on the lines of the old-fashioned ‘Family Doctor’ we grew up with and hope to find again. Her emphasis on early, accurate diagnosis; appropriate (few) medicines; and clear patient communication, sets her apart as one of the most trusted physicians in Delhi. She is licensed to practice medicine both in India & California.